West-Central Forage Association

Horizon Peas Small Plot Trial

In 2012, WCFA began a small-plot trial to gain current and comprehensive regional yield and quality data on Horizon forage peas. Horizon peas were developed through Saskatchewan Pulse Growers and are claimed to have similar feed value to Trapper and 40-10 with approximately 8% higher blooms than 40-10. Released in 2010, Horizon biomass is reported at 8% higher than CDC Leroy and CDC Tucker and with higher standability than all other varieties, it may offer producers an opportunity to increase the legume content in their silage crops. The objective of this trial is to observe the standability of the plants, and to identify nutritional differences over existing forage pea varieties.

Peas were planted alone and intercropped with Murphy oats, Pronghorn triticale, and Vivar barley. Peas-only plots were seeded at a rate of 75 plants/m2, and intercropped plots were seeded at 56 pea plants/m2 along with 125 cereal plants/m2 (75% and 50% rates, respectively). Seeds were sown at a depth ranging from ¼ to ½ inch, depending on available soil moisture.

A total of 16 plots were seeded, four replicates of the four treatments, in late May. Fertilizer and peat powder inoculant were applied at seeding. Inoculant is one of the most important inputs for any pulse crop and proper inoculation for field peas can reduce or remove the need to apply nitrogen fertilizer. Pulse only treatments were fertilized with 50 lbs 11-52-0-0 and cereal treatments with 50% of the recommended cereal fertilizer rate based on soil test results.

Plots were sprayed with herbicide prior to seeding to control early weed species, and in-crop spraying occurred as early as possible, based on weed pressure and crop development.

Standability, or lodging resistance, is rated using a 0 to 9 scale; 0 being susceptible to lodging and 9 being highly resistant as seen in Table 1. This rating is taken once plants are uniformly mature.

9

Highly Resistant

1 meter or greater

7

Resistant

70 to 90 centimetres

5

Moderately Resistant

50 to 70 centimetres

3

Low Resistant

30 to 50 centimetres

1

Vulnerable

10 to 30 centimetres

0

Susceptible

0 to 10 centimetres

Table 1. Lodging resistance scale.

Resistance numbers in Table 2 are a reflection of the average of the 4 reps. The monoculture Horizon plots were subject to higher moisture numbers, so this rating was skewed in relation to the combinations. Picture 1 shows side by side reps in the 2013 plots at Wildwood.

 

Horizon

Horizon/Murphy

Horizon/Pronghorn

Horizon/Vivar

Average

7

9

8

7

Table 2. Standability ratings. Ratings taken when all cereal crops at a soft dough stage.

Plots were harvested with timing of harvest based on crop development. Horizon/Murphy treatments were harvested when the barley reached soft dough stage, Horizon/Vivar were harvested when the oats were at milk stage, and Horizon/Pronghorn were harvested when the triticale was at late milk stage.

Harvested plots were weighed and yield, both in kg/ha and t/ac, were calculated based on wet weights. Table 3 below shows the wet weight yields.

 

Horizon

Horizon/Murphy

Horizon/Pronghorn

Horizon/Vivar

 

kg/ha

t/ac

kg/ha

t/ac

kg/ha

t/ac

kg/ha

t/ac

Rep 1

30,100

134,667

25,620

114,624

24,920

114,492

27,860

124,646

Rep 2

27,020

120,887

23,660

105,229

23,520

105,229

25,620

114,624

Rep 3

25,480

113,997

24,360

108,987

23,520

105,229

25,480

113,997

Average

27,533

123,184

24,547

109,613

23,987

108,317

26,320

117,756

Table 3. Yield results of all treatments, based on adjusted wet weights, in both kg/ha (left) and t/ac (right).

Composite samples of each treatment were collected and sent to the lab for nutritional analysis. Table 4 shows crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), maintenance energy (NEM), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and relative feed value (RFV).

 

Horizon

Horizon/Murphy

Horizon/Pronghorn

Horizon/Vivar

CP (%)

12.32

8.94

9.67

10.95

NDF (%)

40.66

50.20

49.57

49.22

TDN (%)

65.12

59.97

59.56

61.10

NEM (MCal/Kg)

1.60

1.45

1.44

1.48

P (%)

0.12

0.14

0.12

0.18

K (%)

1.28

1.96

1.83

1.86

S (%)

0.07

0.10

0.10

0.12

RFV (Calculation)

148.98

111.13

111.77

115.48

Table 4. Feed test results for composite samples of Horizon, Horizon/Murphy, Horizon/Pronghorn, and Horizon/Vivar treatments.

The second objective of this study was to compare nutritional information of Horizon forage peas against other existing forage pea varieties, in cereal mixtures. Tables 5 shows the comparisons of intercropped trials.

 

Horizon/

Murphy

40-10/

Murphy

Horizon/

Vivar

40-10/

Vivar

Horizon/

Pronghorn

40-10/

Pronghorn

CP (%)

10.46

12.48

12.84

13.73

12.19

12.00

TDN (%)

59.95

61.84

62.47

62.47

62.47

61.21

Ca (%)

0.65

0.77

0.73

0.87

0.68

0.74

P (%)

0.21

0.24

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.23

K (%)

1.77

1.79

1.58

1.59

1.56

1.55

MG (%)

0.23

0.27

0.24

0.27

0.22

0.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5. Comparison of nutritional values between Horizon and 40-10 in cereal combinations.

CONCLUSION/OBSERVATIONS

Visual observation of the Horizon and 40-10 plots shows that the Horizon peas have considerably more resistance to lodging. High moisture levels in the soil did contribute to lodging within the Horizon plots, but these plots were mono-cropped, so could potentially have been less of an issue if the plots were intercropped with cereal. Yield comparisons in Table 3 show that intercropping reduces yield, and peas and barley yielded higher than the peas and oats or peas and triticale. Intercropping of peas is known to reduce lodging, but as reserved in Table 4, reduces the nutritional value. This could be in part because of the increased fibre levels of the cereal. Table 5 shows that there were negligible differences to TDN levels between Horizon and 40-10 peas. In the intercropped plots Vivar and Pronghorn were the higher quality crops,

This trial was funded through the Agriculture Opportunity Fund and Yellowhead County.

 

PDF copy of the report

Additional Resources:

Horizon Peas: Western Producer Article

Cereal/Pea or Spring Cereal/Winter Cereal Intercropping - Frequently Asked Questions